Biblical Botanical Gardens Society- USA


Bibliography, Reference, E-magazines (Journals) and Glossary

BBGSUSA  provides links to sites maintained by other organizations for informational purposes only. BBGSUSA has no responsibility for the accuracy of the content of any Web site to which a link is provided. The groups included on the list do not necessarily reflect the views of BBGSUSA.

BBGS maintains a research library at its main campus in Oxford, Georgia.


Hardcopy Research Collection

The society is currently seek book donations to build up its research and resource center in High Springs, Florida. If you or someone you know would like to donate books about gardening (all aspects- flowers, trees, scrubs, herbs), archaeology, or ancient world history (focusing on the lands of the Bible), geography and all other fauna (birds, fish, insects, mammals) please send us an e-mail and tell us what you may have.

Books to donate

E-mail us at and describe to best you can what books you may be willing to donate to the research and resource library of the society.

Thank you for your help.



Abbate, Michael. 2009. Gardening Eden: How creation care will change your faith, your life, and our world. Water Brook , Colorado Springs. 254 pp.

Alon, A. 1978. The Natural History of the Land of the Bible. Double-day & Co., Garden City, N.Y. 276 pp. 

Anderson, A.W. 1957. Plants of the Bible. Philosophical Library,Inc., New York. 72 pp. 


*^Andoh, Anthony Kweku, Biblical Manna-The spiritual message for the new Millennium: A Nile Valley Plant Survey. The North Scale Institute, San Francisco, 1996. 237 pp.

Bailey, C., and Danin, A. 1981. "Bedouin Plant Utilization in Sinai and Negev." Economic Botany 35 (2): 145-162. 

Balfour, J .H. 1851. Phytotheology or Botanical Sketches Intended to Illustrate the Works of God. Johnstone & Hunters. London. 242 pp. 

Balfour, J.H. 1857. The Plants of the Bible: Trees and Shrubs. T. Nelson & Sons. London. 54 pp. 

Batanouny, K.H. 1981. Ecology and Flora of Qatar. Alden Press, Oxford. 245 pp. 

Boulos, L. 1983. Medicinal Plants of North Africa. Reference Publications, Algonac, Mich. 286 pp. 


*Brewer, Douglas J., Donald B. Redford, Susan Redford. Domestic Plants and animals: the Egyptian Origins. Aris & Phillips LTD, Warminster, England. 149 pp.

Callcott, M. 1842. A Scripture Herbal. Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans. London. 544 pp. 

Crowfoot, G.M. and Baldensberger, L. 1932. From Cedar to Hyssop: A study in the Folklore of Plants in Palestine. The Sheldon Press. London. 196 pp


Darom, D. s. d. Die Schonsten Pflanzen der Bibel. Palphot Ltd. P.O. Box 2. Herzlia 46 100. 47.


*de Waal, Marinus. 1984. Medicinal Herbs in the Bible. Samuel Weiser, Inc., Maine. 115 pp.


Galil, J. 1968. "An Ancient Technique for Ripening Sycomore Fruit in East Mediterranean Countries." Economic Botany 22: 178-190. 

Ghazanfar SA. 1994. Handbook of Arabian Medicinal Plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton FL. 265 pp. 

Goodman, Naomi, Robert Marcus, Susan Woolhandler. Good Book Cookbook. Good Book Publishing, 2008.


*Hahn, Samuel L. Stories Told Under the Sycamore Tree: Lessons from Bible Plants. CSS Publishing, Lima, Ohio, 2003. 191 pp.

Harrison, R.K. 1966. Healing Herbs of the Bible. E.J. Brill, Leiden. 58 pp.


Hepper, F. Nigel, Pharaoh's Flowers: the botanical treasures of Tutankhamun. University of Chicago Press. 2009.


Hepper, F. Nigel, Planting a Bible Garden. Fleming H Revell Co, July 1998.


Hepper, F. Nigel , Baker Encyclopedia of Bible Plants. Baker Pub Group, March 1993.


Hernandez Mesa, M. undated. Las Plantas Biblicas. Sus Propiedades Medicinales y su Applicacion Practica por 1os Sistemas Homeopatico y Natural. Bogota. 


*Jacob, Irene. Plants of the Bible and their use. Rodef Shalom Press, Pittsburgh, 2003. 150 pp.


*King, E.A. 1975. Bible Plants for American Gardens. Dover, New York. 204 pp. (originally published by MacMillan, 1941).


*Krymow, Vincenzina. Healing Plants of the Bible, Cincinnati, St. Anthony Messenger, 2002.


Moldenke, H.N. 1954. "The Economic Plants of the Bible." Economic Botany 8:152-163. 

*Moldenke, H.N. and Moldenke, A.L. 1952. Plants of the Bible.Chronica Botanica Co., Waltham, Mass., 328 pp. 


*O’Brien, Marian Maeve. Herbs & Spices of the Bible: How to grow them and use them. (cookbook), CBP Press, St. Louis. 125 pp.


*Osborn, Henry Stafford. 1861 (reprint 2009). Plants of the Holy Land: with their fruits and flowers. Kessinger Publishing, 174 pp.

Osborn, D.J. 1968. "Notes on Medicinal and Other Uses of Plants in Egypt." Economic Botany 22:165-177. 

Palevitch D., Yaniv Z., Dafni, A. and Friedmen, J. 1986. Medicinal Plants of Israel: An Ethnobotanical Survey. Pp. 281-345 in Craker LE and Simon JE, eds. Herbs, Spices, and Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture and Pharmacology Vol. 1. Oryx Press. 

Philips, H.J. 1958. Lebanese Folk Cures. Vol. II. Some Lebanese Materia Medica. Univ. Microfilms Internat. 457 pp. (Ph.D. Thesis, Anthropology; Columbia U.) 


*Sasso, Sandy Eisenberg. Noah’s Wife: the story of Naamah, Illustrated by Bethanne Andersen, Jewish Lights Publishing, Woodstock, VT. 2003. 32 pp.

*Shewell-Cooper, W.E. 1962. Plants and Fruits of the Bible. Darton, Longman & Todd. London. 173 pp.


*Stern, Kingsley R. 8th ed. 2000. Introductory Plant Biology. McGraw Hill. 589 pp.


Streep, Peg with John Glover. Spiritual Gardening: Creating Sacred Space Outdoors. New World Library, 2003.


*Strong, J. 1890. The Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible. 41st printing. 1981. Abingdon, Nashville. 1340 pp.


*Swenson, Allan A. Plants of the Bible and How to Grow Them. New York, Citadel, 1995.


*Swenson, Allan. Flowers of the Bible: and how to grow them. New York, Citadel, 2002.


*Swenson, Alllan A.  Herbs of the Bible and how to grow them. New York, Citadel Press, 2003.


*Swenson, Allan A. Foods Jesus ate and how to grow them. New York, Skyhorse Publishing, 2008.


Tackholm, V. and Drar, M. 1973. Flora of Egypt. Vol. 1. Reprint. Otto Koeltz Antiquariat, Koenigstein. 574 pp. 

Temple, A.A. 1929. Flowers and Trees of Palestine. Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. London. 148 pp. 


*Tristram, H.B. The Land of Israel: Journal of Travels in Palestine, Undertaken with special reference to its Physical Character. Third Edition, Revised London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1876. 632 pp.

*Walker, W. 1957. All the Plants of the Bible. Harper and Bros., New York. 244 pp.


*^Worcester, John. Correspondences of the Bible: the plants. Swenderborg Foundation, 2009. 224 pp.


Zohary, Daniel and Maria Hopf.  Domestication of Plants in the Old World: The origin and spread of cultivated plants in West Asia, Europe and the Nile Valley. Oxford University Press, 2004. 316 pp.

Zohary, Michael & Feinbrun-Dothan, Naomi. Flora Palaestina. Jerusalem : The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, 1966 


Zohary, Michael. Plant life of Palestine : Israel and Jordan. New York : Ronald Press, 1962.

*Zohary, M. 1982. Plants of the Bible. Cambridge University Press. New York. 223 pp.


*Bible Flowers. Introduction by  Jenny de Gex 1996. First American Edition. Harmony Books, New York, New York. 68 pp.



Books with and * are currently in the special collections library of BBGS.

Books marked ^ contain materials which do not represent the views of BBGS 



The Kew Royal Botanical l Gardens

Impressive data bank of online collections, artifacts, and specimens.

 Botanical references

Dictionary of Botanical Epihets

Newly developed wikiproject about plants

Horticulture and gardening wikiproject

Botanical Dictionary

Gardenology: dictionary of gardening terms

Environmental references

Don't get lost in the green ether: Get the facts behind environmental science with definitions to over 4,000 terms

An encyclopedia of environmental terms and topics


Biblical references

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia

Easton’s Bible Dictionary

Fausset Bible Dictionary

Bible Concordance- Strong's

Bible Atlas and Geography

Bible Atlas


Linguistic references


 Encyclopedic references

Catholic Encyclopedia

BHG's plant encyclopedia.

12-volume Jewish Encyclopedia which was originally published between 1901-1906.

Encyclopedia of Life

an electronic page for each species of organism on Earth

Encyclopedia Mythica

Encyclopedia of World History


 Plants and Lands of the Bible references

Plants in the Bible

Plants in the Bible and Talmud

Plants and Perfume in the Bible

Flowers in Israel

Wild Flowers in Israel

The survey of western Palestine: The fauna and flora of Palestine.

Henry Baker Tristram (1822-1906) Palestine Exploration Fund, London, 1885.


Lands of the Bible.  

J. W. McGarvey, 1881,

particularly Chapter II- The climate, soil; and production

The Flora of Syria, Palestine and Sinai

George E. Post.

Manners and customs in Bible lands.

Fred H. Wight, Moody Press, Chicago, 1953




1 : willow; especially : any of various willows whose pliable twigs are used for furniture and basketry

2 : a flexible slender twig or branch

<a href="">withy</a>


A sepal (from Latin separatus "separate" + petalum "petal") is a part of the flower of angiosperms (flowering plants). Sepals in most flowers are green and lie under the more conspicuous petals. As a collective unit the sepals form a calyx, whereas the collection of petals is called the corolla. Together, these two structures are known as the perianth of the flower.

The petals and sepals are usually differentiated into colorful petals and green sepals. The term tepal is usually applied when the petals and sepals are undifferentiated and look similar, or the petals are absent and the sepals are colorful. When the flower is in bud, the sepals enclose and protect the more delicate floral parts within. Morphologically they are modified leaves. The calyx (the sepals) and the corolla (the petals) are the outer sterile whorls of the flower, which together form what is known as the perianth'.[1]

The number of sepals in a flower (called merosity) is indicative of the plant's classification: eudicots have typically four or five sepals, whereas monocots and palaeodicots have three, or some multiple of three, sepals.



in·vo·lu·cre  (nv-lkr)
A series of bracts beneath or around a flower or flower cluster. French, from Latin involcrum, wrapper, envelope.

a highly conspicuous bract or bract pair or ring of bracts at the base of an inflorescence

Bract- a modified leaf or leaflike part just below and protecting an inflorescence



Line drawing of an involucre, note the dark star-shaped bract protecting the inflorescence.


E-magazines and Journals

American Society of Botanical Artists

The Botanical Artist - 2001-2009


Creation Care Magazine - Spring 1998- Fall 2008